sreda, 18. marec 2015

Cytological evaluation of inflammatory and neoplastic skin disease PART 1

Inflammatory cells are usually neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells.

Eosinophilic plaque in a cat
Interdigital granuloma in a dog

Non-inflammatory cells:

- Epithelial cells: tend to exfoliate in high numbers are often present in cohesive clusters and sheets. Individual cells are round, cuboidal or polygonal. Most epithelial cells have well-defined cell borders. We see them on a regular basis in the inflammatory preparations, where they are admixed with bacteria, fungi and inflammatory cells. In non-neoplastic tumours we find them often in inclusion type cysts or cystic epithelial tumours. They should be evaluated for criteria of malignancy.
Normal epidermal cells by layers
Squamous cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma

Basal cell tumor
- Mesenchymal cells (spindle cells):  Tissue cells tend to exfoliate in low numbers and are present in loose aggregates or groups. The cells are usually spindle shaped but can appear more ovoid and plump.  If these cells are contained in an inflammatory exudate they can become reactive and can mimic pleomorph neoplastic cells. Usually this is seen in granulation tissue. However, a high number of spindle-shaped cells are indicative of neoplasia. The origin is very difficult to detect, they can arise form adipose, fibrous, vessel, neural etc. tissue.

Spindle cell tumor of soft tissue origin
- Round-cells: Round-cell lesions tend to exfoliate readily, although cells can be fragile, requiring gentle preparation for cytology. Cells are discrete with well-defined cell borders. Common cells of this category include lymphocytes, histiocytes, mast cells, and plasma cells, as well as cells of transmissible venereal tumors.   

Mast cell tumor

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